Saturday, March 14, 2020

A cross cultural perspective of polygyny essays

A cross cultural perspective of polygyny essays A Cross Cultural Perspective of Polygyny As an institution, polygyny, the social arrangement that permits a man to have more than one wife at the same time, exists in all parts of the world. From our present knowledge, there are very few primitive tribes in which a man is not allowed to enter into more than one union. In fact, ethologists now believe that only one to two percent of all species may be monogamous (Tucker). None of the simian species are strictly monogamous; our closest relatives, the chimpanzees, practice a form of group marriage. Among the 849 human societies examined by the anthropologist Murdock (1957), 75% practiced polygyny. Many peoples have been said to be monogamous, but it is difficult to infer from the data at our disposal whether monogamy is the prevalent practice, the moral ideal, or an institution safeguarded by sanctions (Malinowski 1962). Historically, polygyny was a feature of the ancient Hebrews, the traditional Chinese, and the nineteenth-century Mormons in the United States, but the modern practice of polygyny is concentrated in Africa, the Middle East, India, Thailand, and Indonesia. The extent to which men are able to acquire multiple wives depends on many factors, including the economic prosperity of the mans family, the prevailing bride price, the differential availability of marriageable females, the need and desire for additional offspring, and the availability of productive roles for subsequent wives. Even in societies that permit polygyny, the conditions of life for the masses make monogamy the most common form of marriage. The two variations of polygyny are sororal (the cowives are sisters) and nonsororal (the cowives are not sisters). Some societies also observe the custom of levirate, making it compulsory for a man to marry his brothers widow. It must be remembered that any form of polygyny is never practiced throughout the entire community: there cannot exis...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Foundation of Criminal Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Foundation of Criminal Law - Essay Example 31 (issued in 1970),  that defined recklessness as: " A person is reckless if, (a) knowing that there is a risk that an " event may result from his conduct or that a circumstances may " exist, he takes that risk, and (b) it is unreasonable for him to take " it, having regard to the degree and nature of the risk which he knows " to be present." With this definition, Lord Edmund-Davies explains that recklessness entails having a foresight of the outcome or its consequences, along with the â€Å"objective judgment of the reasonableness of the risk taken.3† Thus, Metcalfe and Ashworth differentiate Lord Edmund-Davies’ discussion with that of Lord Diplock’s speech saying that it lacked the supporting statutory interpretation.4 Metcalfe and Ashworth also pointed out the considerations made by the House of Lords in the R v G case. Lord Bingham stated that the Caldwell decision misconstrued the statute, particularly Section 1(1) of the 1971 Act5 and went against the ru le requiring that there be a â€Å"subjective mens rea† in case of serious crime conviction, leading to unfair results that might be â€Å"neither moral nor just.†6 Lord Steyn on the other hand, focused on the injustice of using Caldwell decision to children, citing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.7 The commentary also discussed the meaning of â€Å"recklessness† as ascribed by the House of Lords in the R v G decision. Lord Bingham adopted the definition cited in the draft criminal code of 1989 wherein a person is said to act recklessly if â€Å"with respect to (i) a circumstance when he is aware of a risk that it exists or will exist; (ii) a result when he is aware of a risk that it will occur; and it is, in the circumstances known to him, unreasonable to take the risk.†8 Metcalfe and Ashworth explains that from this definition, it can be deduced that â€Å"any awareness of any degree of risk satisfies the definition, and that the judgment of the unreasonableness of  a risk (when that issue is contested) is for the tribunal of fact.†9 With this, they foresee that this same definition may be used uniformly throughout the criminal law, except for judges who would substitute the term â€Å"reckless† with â€Å"gross negligence† necessary in a manslaughter conviction.10 Finally, Metcalfe and Ashworth discusses the question of legal policy as regards the liability of children, taking into consideration the differing standards applicable to children and mentally disordered people, from that of adults who are of sound mind and hence, should have been aware of the need to take care. In this case, they opined that the courts still sustain â€Å"strict liability for offences that may carry prison sentences of some length† and state that the legislature has emphasized on the objective standards especially in the Sexual Offences Act 2003, in that they introduced the â€Å"test of ‘absence of re asonable belief’ in consent to replace the previous recklessness requirement.†11 With this discussion of Metcalfe and Ashworth, it raised more questions than answers in definitely identifying the elements to be considered in criminal liabilities involving recklessness. Their discussion was not able to persuasively argue that indeed a different standard should be applied especially those concerning children, or having a subjective approach to the circumstance of a child or person at the time the act committed, rather than seeing a circumstance from an objective point of

Monday, February 10, 2020

From the decade of 1990s Nike Inc is facing criticisms from different Essay

From the decade of 1990s Nike Inc is facing criticisms from different human rights organizations and government bodies - Essay Example Nike management is using the sweatshops for manufacturing of the products where the labor law is violated. The manufacturing units of Nike are mainly in the Asian countries like China, Vietnam, Indonesia etc where they can get labor in a relatively lower cost, also they are getting free trade zones there. The minimum wages law is violated there as well as the working conditions are poor there. Some media have also proved that the working conditions are not standard in Nike factories. Also there were claims that Nike is using child labors. Nike is using forced labor as reported by different media. Recently in July, 2011 an article claimed that Nike the employees of Nike factory abused by the supervisors constantly. So the main problem is that Nike management has failed to ensure a standard human resource policy in the company. Problem Symptoms The problem symptoms are as follows: Certain reports are claiming that Nike is not sticking to a standard human resource policy from the 1990s. Some customers are avoiding Nike on morale ground as they are violating the labor law continuously. Problem Statement As in the manufacturing Factories Nike Inc is violated the labor laws, the human resource organizations and the government bodies are protesting this in different countries as well as some customer started to avoid the products in a morale ground. Part B The Problem Nike Inc, a major manufacturer of apparel and sports equipment is violating the labor laws in its manufacturing factories which are situated mainly in the Asian countries. As the labors are not treated well in the factories so the international media is continuously focusing on this matter. They have collected some proves which made clear the fact that Nike is violating the labor laws really. Several issues are against the company, because of which some consumers also avoid using the products of Nike on the moral ground. Fishbone Diagram Key Findings From the fishbone diagram it has been found that sever al factors are there and because of all these Nike was able to violate the labor laws from the 1990s. The main factor is the management. The human resource policy of the management is below standard, which causes the problem mainly. Moreover the long term strategy of the company is not good at all. If the company continues this type of labor policy then the company can’t make profit in the long term. The government of the respective countries is also responsible for this situation. Nike is continuing this practice from the 1990s, but the respective governments have not taken such hard step so that the company will think about the matter seriously. The government has made the trade free zones for the foreign companies, and it is attractable for the companies as they can do business in low cost. They can also get low cost

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Disipline in Schools Essay Example for Free

Disipline in Schools Essay The definitions of ‘violence’, ‘bullying’ and ‘indiscipline clearly incorporate a wide range of behaviors which can alter depending on both the context within which the behaviors are enacted, and, indeed, with whom they are directed towards. Discipline in schools is now passing through an extended eclipse. The problem of indiscipline permeates all facets of our life. It has, in fact brought us down to the knees Each day there are thousands of kids who go to school and get picked on in some way or another. Those same kids will probably come home and tell nobody about the pain that they are going through inside. There are numerous causes and solutions for this problem that we are facing in our schools. One main cause is that those doing the discipline problems suffer from bad parenting. I believe that parents need to be responsible for their children. They’re the ones who raised the child and filled them with their beliefs of what’s right and wrong. When a principle calls home about a child misbehaving and the parents do nothing , that just lets the child know that it’s alright for him or her to do it again. The parents will cause the child to form the mindset that he or she can do it again because they know that they won’t get reprimanded for their actions. Even if their child doesn’t get punished at home, that will lead the child to start acting out of control at school. Therefore, parents must take responsibility for their children’s behavior. The child needs to be teached that there will be consequences not only at school but homes as well for any discipline problems to be solved.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

islam :: essays research papers

The literal meaning of Islam is peace; surrender of one’s will i.e. losing oneself for the sake of God and surrendering one’s own pleasure for the pleasure of God. The message of Islam was revealed to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings on him) 1, 400 years ago. It was revealed through angel Gabriel (on whom be peace) and was thus preserved in the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran carries a Divine guarantee of safeguard from interpolation and it claims that it combines the best features of the earlier scriptures. The prime message of Islam is the Unity of God, that the Creator of the world is One and He alone is worthy of worship and that Muhammad (peace and blessings on him) is His Messenger and Servant. The follower of this belief is thus a Muslim - a Muslim’s other beliefs are: God’s angels, previously revealed Books of God, all the prophets, from Adam to Jesus (peace be on them both), the Day of Judgement and indeed the Decree of God. A Muslim has five main duties to perform, namely; bearing witness to the Unity of God and Muhammad (peace and blessings on him) as His Messenger, observing the prescribed prayer, payment of Zakat, keeping the fasts of Ramadhan and performing the pilgrimage to Mecca. Islam believes that each person is born pure. The Holy Quran tells us that God has given human beings a choice between good and evil and to seek God’s pleasure through faith, prayer and charity. Islam believes that God created mankind in His image and by imbuing the attributes of God on a human level mankind can attain His nearness. Islam’s main message is to worship God and to treat all God’s creation with kindness and compassion. Rights of parents in old age, orphans and the needy are clearly stated. Women’s rights were safeguarded 1,400 years ago when the rest of the world was in total darkness about emancipation. Islamic teachings encompass every imaginable situation and its rules and principles are truly universal and have stood the test of time. In Islam virtue does not connote forsaking the bounties of nature that are lawful. On the contrary one is encouraged to lead a healthy, active life with the qualities of kindness, chastity, honesty, mercy, courage patience and politeness. In short, Islam has a perfect and complete code for the guidance of individuals and communities alike.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Anomie Theory

Right off the bat when reading the article it states that it's the most widely read article in sociology. The author Robert K. Merton opens his paper by first challenging certain offenses that were popular in 1938. Most of the theories that Merton has analyzed mentioned â€Å"biological drives†. Some of the theorists view crime as â€Å"biological drives† in which our society comes to terms with restraining it. What I found interesting, Merton doesn't agree with other theorists, he, on the other hand, argues that a person or persons drive for crime is frequently shown to be stemmed from society itself. This is when his theory or argument splits into two parts. The article refers to his â€Å"anomie theory†. This hypothesis of his is looked to be explained why certain parts of societies have increased rates of criminal activity than let's say, the other half of the societies in which they appear to have decreased rates of criminal activity. Merton focuses on the relative emphasis placed on this set cultural goals society has placed as well as the institutionalized norms for achieving these goals of society. It is come to know some certain places in society have a high comparative prominence which is called cultural goals. Also, to have a low corresponding value of the norms or as well some gain the achievement of goals, which increases the rate of crimes. Merton characterizes these societies by using the terms anomie or normlessness, whereas it is explained from â€Å"the goal-seeking behavior†, Merton mentions. An individual is exposed to little commands or in other words law. This turns into a repercussion for persons employing the most beneficial values including that of criminal acts in order to achieve their once again prize. The â€Å"strain† theory Merton discusses in this half of the article argues that some person and persons within a society are being exposed to â€Å"special† pressures that of criminal actions. Merton mentions that while it is urged as well as expected that people strive for financial riches, people of the lower class are prevented from achieving this goal. This leads to individuals to have pressure, but even then they can adapt to the strain or so-called pressures of values. Continuing of Merton briefly discusses why some types of individuals are more likely to respond to strain with crime than others. Merton's strain theory has been the subject of extensive commentary and researches the evidence for his strain theory which is mixed. Certain recent tests of this theory seem to be at it's accurate as well as the anomie theory. The anomie theory proposes that criminal activity is most seen in those who place much emphasis on cultural goals and little on the norms for achieving the goals, meaning to be successful. Before going into the article I made a note that has caught my attention about the author itself. Albert K. Cohen was a student of Robert K. Merton. I just found this to be very intriguing because some of his points or theories have been taken into account in Cohen's articles. Cohen has a particular interest and focus of criminal societies. To narrow it down, Cohen focuses more on the lower-working-class urban gangs of 1950, during that time they were the subject of attention. Cohen in the article poses a question of: â€Å"How can we explain the origin and content of delinquent subcultures?† Since he was a student of Merton as I said before he draws some of Merton's theory to provide his own, collective answer to the question which is often outlined throughout the article. In the first part of his theory, that is being stated in the first section of the article. Cohen provides a well-explained origin of deviant social groups. The second section applies that the theory to explain the origin and contents of man it has to be specified by gender. Cohen focuses on working-class males and urban gangs. While I was reading the parts of the article, I have noted and made some comparisons and contrasts with Merton's strain theory. Similar to Merton, Cohen argues that â€Å"goal blockade† is what causes delinquency. Now Cohen, on the other hand, argues that lower and working class males don't concern themselves with the goal of cultural goals. Other than the obvious of not concerning themselves with achieving this success, they would rather concern themselves with the fulfillment of making it to the higher societal class. The achievement of broader goals referred to the respect from the higher-ups in the financial success aspect of cultural goals. This was noted by Cohen to be crucial because of the difference in goals. It is said in the article that an individual can obtain financial riches through illegal activities such as theft, this is one of Merton's adaptations of innovation. An individual can't steal the status of a higher class, which makes perfect sense since it could lead to a huge consequence, which Cohen discusses throughout the article. The consequence is that the lower and working class often have to evolve to the goal blockade by making an alternative plan. This is how someone, an individual would gain their true success. This is also noted to be very much alike to Merton's adaptations of criminal behavior, in which was explained that these new goals and methods are basically being replaced for the previous goals instead of the new. From reading onward I made the connection that both the lower and working class share hostility towards the middle-class persons. The hostility leads them to set up a status quo that values everything that the apparent middle class doesn't concern itself with. Based on these very theories it is explained that the middle class values private property and respect for an individual. Now, this caught my attention because it made me question his theory. It's suggesting that lower and working class boys don't value such things. Also, in the theory, it gives an example of what I was questioning. The example that was given was that while gangs of some sorts value the destruction and theft of any property probably more towards private property and leading more towards aggression towards others. Cohen then goes onto the explanatory origins and contents of the criminal social group. After getting towards the end of the article it states the definite features of his hypothesis. Theorists have come to the main claim that the goals of criminal persons are not disagreeable to an idea of standard goals as Cohen has explained throughout his theory. Even though there has been a criticism the data shows and tends to often prove and support this argument. All of this information that was given by this theorist Cohen brings a fundamental contribution to criminal law. Anomie Theory Anomie theory is important for explaining whether crime is a normal or abnormal (pathological) social phenomenon (Cartwright, 2011). It describes a lack of social norms, lawlessness and normlessness (Cartwright, 2013). In detail, it is a breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community. This theory was first coined by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist in his book Suicide published in 1897 (Cartwright, 2013). Later on, Robert Merton, the President of American Sociological Association, developed the link between anomie and social structure. Unlike Durkheim, Merton used the notion from Durkheim’s anomie theory and explains that social structure could exert pressure on an individual and directly cause deviance (Cartwright, 2011). This theory is better known as the Anomie-Strain Theory. Furthermore, in 1994, Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld, like Merton, brought more attention to social organization and social institutions instead of focusing on individuals when analysing crimes (Cartwright, 2011), so the Institutional-Anomie Theory was developed. In order to understand the anomie theory better, the developments of this theory from Emile Durkheim to Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld should all be considered. For Emile Durkheim, his main concern about anomie was social solidarity (Cartwright, 2011). Based on this concern, he divided solidarity into two categories: mechanical solidarity, which maintains low adaptation skills; and to the contrary, organic solidarity whose inertia sensitively needs changes (Cartwright, 2013). Durkheim observed that these two groups would co-exist. The reason is that anomie is impossible when solidarity is organic. Their sensitivity to change leads to evolution among this form of labour. Later in 1897, Durkheim pointed out that the suicide rates were due to the dramatic economic changes, such as economic depression and the sudden growth of the economy (Cartwright, 2011). â€Å"According to Durkheim, these periods of anomie –times of normlessness, lawlessness, and unregulated choice – made individuals more susceptible to committing suicide or engaging in deviant behaviour† (Cartwright, 2011, p. ). In this study, Durkheim associated anomie with the influence of a lack of the norms. In Durkheim’s study of anomie theory, two notions should not be neglected. Firstly, Emile Durkheim referred to society much like a functioning organism (Cartwright, 2011), evidence for the theory can be easily found in his referring to the society as â€Å"the social organism† or â€Å"the functions of the central or gan† (Cartwright, 2011, p. 6). In order to maintain the continuation of the organism, each of the integrated parts has to be working well. Secondly, Durkheim discussed crime as an â€Å"abnormal† activity, which indicates that a certain proportion of crimes are normal and happens in most societies, (Cartwright, 2011). f in the steps of Durkheim’s study, Robert Merton described more about the relationship between social structure and anomie theory, later known as the anomie-strain theory. The definition of the word â€Å"strain† in the verb form means to subject to tension or stress. This meaning is very similar to the strain theory. The theory indicates that the social structure of a society may pressure or force the citizens to commit crimes, due to the failure to provide many individuals’ with â€Å"the conventional means necessary to realize those culture goals†, which also means that the individual lacks access to cultural goals, such as money, job, or education (Merton, 1938). In Merton’s publication Social Structure and Anomie, he provides a good example that explains his theory. For example, in the USA, the society’s general goal is wealth; therefore, in order to achieve this certain goal, the institutionalized manner is to be hard-working or obtaining education (Merton, 1938). Based on this theory, Merton identifies five modes of adaptation, including conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion (as cited in Cartwright, 2011, p. 21). According to Merton, innovators are most likely to engage in criminal behaviour, since they may accept the recognition of certain cultural goals but reject achieving the goals in a legitimate way (Merton, 1938). This illegitimacy adjustment as the major concern involves two features (Merton, 1938). Firstly, such antisocial behavior â€Å"by certain conventional values of the culture and by the class structure involving differential access to the approved opportunities for legitimate, prestige-bearing pursuit of the culture goal† (Merton, 1938, p. 27). Secondly, it is the consideration of equal significance. Because of the limitation of legitimate effort, for those individuals with formal education and few economic resources, success is hard to get (Merton, 1938). In addition, Merton declared that the theory he studied was incomplete, since various structural elements were neglected; for example, â€Å"the relevance of cultural conflict for an analysis of culture-goal and institutional-means malintegration† has not yet been examined, and â€Å"the social function performed by illicit responses† has also been omitted (Merton, 1938, p. 30). As for Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld (1995), their study, known as the institutional-anomie theory, focused more on how criminal behavior is affected institutionally, such as by schools, churchs or companies. Messner and Rosenfeld declared that criminology has overly focused on analyzing the behavior of individuals, such as mental illness, but paid less attention on how social organization and institutions influence the behaviour (Rosenfeld & Messner, 1995). Based on the comparison chart that Messner and Rosenfeld established in Crime and the American Dream: an Institutional Analysis, the statistic shows that the United States of America has the highest rates of robbery or homicide among a number of countries (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). The reason is due to â€Å"the crime causing nature of American-style capitalism and its unique cultural goals or aspiration† (Cartwright, 2011, p. 52). Messner and Rosenfield are also concerned about the normal functions of social institutions. The definition of â€Å"institutions† means â€Å"relatively stable sets of norms and values, statuses and roles, and groups and organizations† (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995, p, 60). At this point, Messner and Rosenfeld introduced four major social institutions: political system or polity, economy, institution of family and institution of education (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). Even though these four institutions may not seem directly relevant to crime; however, according to Messner and Rosenfeld, in order to analyse the crime in the United States, the interconnection between these four institutions are central (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). In this study, Messner and Rosenfeld (1995) also talked about the institutional balance of power. Due to the monetary need of every cooperation and institution, the economy â€Å"has come to dominate the other three institutions† (Cartwright, 2011, p52). The devaluation of the economy has overcome the other three major institutions. At last, the dominance of the economy has developed to a very extreme level, and the monetary goals bring out the term â€Å"the ends justify the means† (Cartwright, 2011, p, 52). As the development of anomie theory, from Emile Durkheim to Robert Merton to Messner and Rosenfeld, is discussed, the elements that tie these together is that they all try to figure out the reasons that cause criminal behavior and examines as to why crime happens. This also counts as a similarity between the three anomie theories. In the article â€Å"Cheap Capitalism† written by Hongming Cheng, he characterized cheap capitalism by â€Å"low prices, inferior quality and unsafe condition of goods or services to maximize profits† (Cheng, 2012, p, 254). Cheng also pointed out that the cheap capitalism is â€Å"facilitated by cheap labour and raw materials and, more importantly, associated with degraded morality in the business world† (Cheng, 2012, p, 254). In my opinion, the article provides a good example of and explanation for crime in the non-capitalist countries, such as China. Cheng gives an example about food crime, which involves rampant institutions using cheap and dangerous industrial chemicals in foods (Cheng, 2012). One explanation will be that the food industries provides low-quality food to cheap labourers, since the poor working class cannot afford buying expensive but healthy food (Cheng, 2012). The case is related to the institutional-anomie theory studied by Messner and Rosenfeld (1995). One way to cause crime could be due to the social structure and social institutions. In the article, Cheng also provides a table of scales from 1 (not very important) to 4 (very important) that describes the factors that may lead to and influence the food crime. It turns out that social culture, moral and values got rated 3. 8 out of 4, followed by â€Å"lack of adequate enforcement† that got 3. 6 (Cheng, 2012). From this table, it shows that â€Å"moral anomie is a major factor that associated with food crime† (Cheng, 2012, p, 265). From my perspective, the institutional-anomie theory is connected to this case the most. In conclusion, the development of anomie theory, from Emile Durkheim to Messner and Rosenfeld, provides brilliant ideas and thoughts that explain crime thoroughly. The evidence that supports their theory is solid and valid. Based on this, it makes the theory complete and reasonable.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Roper et als Activities of Daily Living Free Essay Example, 2500 words

Generally, the underpinning theories including dignity, consent, and privacy shall be discussed in this paper as they relate to better and effective nursing care. Although not all of Roper s activities of daily living apply to this case, they shall nevertheless be included for discussion purposes. This paper is being carried out in order to establish a clearer picture and understanding of Roper s activities of daily living and the impact of the disease, disability, and infirmities on such activities. The patient is a 55-year old Afro-Caribbean male who was admitted to the hospital after suffering a fall secondary to excessive alcohol intake. He also has Type 2 diabetes as his other co-morbid condition based on his previous medical history. He lives alone after his wife divorced him two and a half years ago. He is also unemployed because he lost his driving license three years ago and has since sought solace in alcohol which he initially thought he could control. Maintaining a safe environment is crucial for this patient. Patients who have experienced falls are likely to fall again because of any injuries they may have suffered and any immobility which their fall might have caused (Lord, et. al., 2007). Maintaining a safe environment includes safety precautions which can be made on the home and in the patient s hospital room. Guard rails on the bed have to be put up, especially in instances where the patient s mental awareness is low (Miller, 2008). Since the patient is suffering from excessive alcohol intake, the guard rails need to be put up in order to prevent any repeat falls. Maintaining a safe environment also requires the nurses taking on leadership roles in order to maintain and monitor standards which can secure the cleanliness and effective infection control measures (Smith, n.d). The care administered to the patient, therefore, includes various remedies including infection control as well as monitoring of patient progress. We will write a custom essay sample on Roper et als Activities of Daily Living or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now